Archive for May 2015
Quotable (Jeff McMaster, on authentic leadership)
“Authentic Leadership should be an expectation of practice . . . It makes sense that a good leader would be genuine, trustworthy, and consistent, and so it should be something that we would expect from any good leader.”
Dr. Jeffrey S. McMaster
I have worked with teenagers for years, and I believe one of their defining characteristics is a common dislike for hypocrisy. That is not to say that they don’t also demonstrate hypocrisy and wear masks themselves, but as a whole, they don’t like adults who say one thing and do another. They use the term “hypocrite” to describe this behavior, but there are other words that also apply: credible, genuine, real, or authentic. This belief or feeling, though, is not just true for teenagers; everyone dislikes hypocrisy and wants to see authenticity. This is a foundational principle that emerged in Kouzes & Posner’s leadership research, published in The Leadership Challenge, revealing that “more than anything, people want leaders who are credible. Credibility is the foundation of leadership” (p. 32). This led to their statement of “The First Law of Leadership: if you don’t believe in the messenger, you won’t believe the message” (p. 33).
According to Peter Northouse, in Leadership: Theory and Practice, authentic leadership is leadership that is transparent, morally grounded, and responsive to people’s needs and values (p. 282), and is developmental (a life-long process), intrapersonal (within), and interpersonal (relationship). In other words, authenticity is all about being genuine, real, and trustworthy, both with yourself and with others, and about showing genuine care for the best interest of others. Being authentic means being genuine, consistently matching your walk with your talk, and it is absolutely critical to effective leadership.
The most important component of authenticity is honesty. It is honesty that makes someone believable and trustworthy, because it becomes the visible evidence of integrity. According to Kouzes and Posner: “Regardless of what leaders say about their own integrity, people wait to be shown; they observe the behavior. Consistency between word and deed is how people judge someone to be honest” (p. 28). You know this to be true. You can think of examples in your own experience of people who were dishonest and lacked integrity, and you know what you thought about those people and how it affected your level of trust. I don’t think anyone would question the significance of honesty. I think we also know that the “proof is in the pudding” – we decide someone’s honesty based on the actions that we see.
So then, besides the characteristic of honesty, what does authenticity look like? First, you must understand that what it does not look like is imitation. To be authentic, you must be you, not someone else, and sometimes that is much more difficult than we realize. It’s fairly easy for us to try to take on attributes and characteristics of people we look up to, and it’s also appealing to try to imitate others who we want to be like. But the truth is, “no one can be authentic by trying to imitate someone else. You can learn from others’ experiences, but there is no way you can be successful when you are trying to be like them. People trust you when you are genuine and authentic, not a replica of someone else” (George, et. al., Discovering your authentic leadership, p. 163). It’s true that there are some things that we do because we have been exposed to an influential person in our lives; for example, I can point out a number of my own behaviors that reflect my father’s influence, and I can describe important ways in which my wife has shaped who I am. However, being affected by their influence does not mean that I am being them. Rather, everything I have learned has had to be applied in a way that matches my own personality and characteristics. I still have to be me.
Second, authenticity means that people can trust you to “DWYSYWD: Do What You Say You Will Do. DWYSYWD has two essential elements: say and do. To be credible in action, leaders must be clear about their beliefs; they must know what they stand for. That’s the “say” part. Then they must put what they say into practice: they must act on their beliefs and “do” (Kouzes and Posner, p. 38). This characteristic will most clearly be revealed when the pressure is on and the challenge is great. Without question, “the values that form the basis for authentic leadership are derived from your beliefs and convictions, but you will not know what your true values are until they are tested under pressure” (George, et. al., pp. 169-170). When the heat is turned up, the fire will usually reveal your true colors, and that’s when people can see if your authenticity is real.
The conclusion, then, is that a leader must be authentic in order to be effective. People must be able to tell that you are genuine, that you are who you say you are because you do what you say you will do. Whether you realize it or not, you are being watched by your people, your family, your customers, and your community, so that they can determine if you are believable and therefore trustworthy. And if they don’t trust you, they won’t follow you. That’s why I believe that authenticity needs to be at the top of the list for every leader.
George, B., Sims, P., McLean, A. N., and Mayer, D., “Discovering Your Authentic Leadership” in HBR’s 10 Must Reads on Leadership (2011). Harvard Business Review Press: Boston, MA.
Kouzes, J. M., and Posner, B. Z. (2002). The Leadership Challenge (3rd Ed.). Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA.
Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and Practice (6th Ed.). Sage Publications: Los Angeles, CA.
What Do You Think . . . What do you need before you start?
Before undertaking any task or project, it is important to first get permission, get people, and get resources. In your experience, has any one of those been more important than the others? Have you encountered problems by failing to get one of those? Please share your experiences in the comment box below.
The Work of Leadership
In my first year as the head of a school, I was enthusiastic and organized, with big dreams and a plan that I was developing and implementing. At first, though, I kept finding myself getting frustrated, because I would have seemingly constant interruptions that kept me from getting to the tasks that I need to do in order to carry out my plans. I know now how foolish this sounds, but I was getting frustrated because people were getting in the way of the tasks. Eventually it dawned on me that people were part of the job, so to alleviate the frustration, I began to allot specific time periods each day for people. And of course, people couldn’t seem to keep their interruptions confined to the times I had designated (you can read sarcasm into this). Finally, God smacked me over the head by reminding me of a former pastor’s sermon in which the message had repeatedly emphasized that people matter to God. I realized that the work of ministry is primarily about people, because people matter to God (and therefore they should matter to me), even though tasks are a necessary part of the work of effective leadership. I finally understood that leadership is about both people and tasks, and that the real challenge is in undertaking the work of leadership in a way that accomplishes tasks well while also meeting the needs of people in a way that draws them toward God.
Years of research and study on leadership by many researchers have concluded that the work of leadership does indeed boil down to these two things: tasks and people. At it’s core, effective leadership must be able to manage and direct the tasks appropriate to the circumstances, and at the same time manage and direct the people involved in a relational way that develops them individually. Very simply, it means getting the job done well, while working well with people and making them better in the process.
In practice, though, leadership is more complex than this, because there are lots of variables in both tasks and people: different personality types, different circumstances, different strengths and weaknesses, different obstacles, different tasks, and so on. And beyond that, it takes lots of work to develop a vision, then make plans, and finally implement the vision and plans in a way that most effectively accomplishes the tasks and leads people. The reality is that the work of leadership is daunting. However, the book of Ezra can and does help with this, providing some valuable lessons that help us identify important principles that make the work of leadership more effective. In his story, we find lessons that are beneficial for our own personal spiritual growth, but that are also applicable to our role as leaders.
Ezra first shows us that there are three things that have to happen before you can begin to move forward, and these three things are illustrated in the description of the early stages of his leadership. In Ezra 7:6, we are told that Ezra had made a request of the king (which the king granted, as we see a little later in the chapter); in Ezra 7:7, we are given a list of the categories of people who went with him in the return to Jerusalem; and in Ezra 7:15-17, we are told that he was to be provided with gold, silver, and the necessary resources for the task ahead of him.
What is reflected in this information is the necessity of three things: getting permission, getting people, and getting resources, before undertaking the work of leadership in a situation, project, or organization. Getting permission can come from superiors, who give the necessary approval needed before getting a green light to go, but it also needs to come from below, by getting buy-in from followers. If they haven’t agreed to follow your lead, very little movement is going to take place. Getting people involves the task of identifying the necessary strengths needed for the task, and then assembling the best group of people to accomplish those tasks. Finally, getting resources involves gathering those things – tools, finances, or people – that must be assembled before beginning the tasks. With these three things arranged, the rest of the book of Ezra provides insight into eight components that make up the work of leadership.
- Recognition: Ezra 7:27-28 records Ezra’s response to the letter from the king that authorized the return to Jerusalem, which promised assistance. It is important to see that, in his response, the first words out his mouth were, “Blessed be the Lord God of our fathers, who has put such a thing as this in the king’s heart.” First and most importantly, he gave honor to God, acknowledged that He is ultimately sovereign and responsible, and recognized that it was His plan. He gave credit where credit was due, immediately and at the front end of the process. All Christian leaders need to do the same – recognizing God’s place in our lives and in our circumstances – but the idea can also be applied to our leadership of others. People also need to be recognized and feel valued, believing that they are important to the process and the vision, and so recognizing them early (and often) affirms their value and enhances their level of commitment. Therefore it is important to recognize the benefactors, the idea-makers, the planners, the leaders, the contributors, and the participants.
- Voice: in Ezra 10, Ezra had confronted the people with a pervasive problem and the need for resolution and restoration. In verses 12-14, they approached Ezra and gave input into the solution for correcting the problem, and verse 16 reveals that they were heard; their input was incorporated into the process of resolution. They were given an opportunity to speak, and they were heard, and this reminds us of the importance of giving people a voice, and then listening to what they say. Often, those who are on the ground floor, or in the trenches, have an awareness and understanding of the obstacles, the needs, the details, etc., that the leadership does not clearly see because they are further removed from it. Therefore there is great value in intentionally soliciting input and validating concerns and viewpoints; and where appropriate, that input should be used to modify or adjust the plans. And at the risk of saying it too many times, don’t forget to first submit those plans to God for his approval, and listen to His direction.
- Resources: Ezra 7:11-26, the letter from the king to Ezra, details the resources that were being provided for the mission, and it included people, funds, supplies, tools, time, and talents. In Ezra’s case, God provided all that would be needed through the king’s own stores, but the lesson for us is that God will provide for His plan. That provision may come from you, or it may come from other sources, but He will do it in the way that is best. The application of this idea to leadership helps us to see the need to first identify what you have available – the people and skill sets, the funding, the supplies – and then identify and solicit any additional needed resources. Figure out the resources you have and the resources you need.
- Leaders: Ezra 7:25 and 10:14 point out two different capacities of leadership that needed to be filled. In the first verse, we are told that Ezra appointed magistrates and judges, and in the second verse, we are told that the people were going to identify a leader from among each group to represent them, which reflects the two purposes of oversight and representation. Those who are charged with oversight are people from among the leadership who have the task of overseeing and managing both the planning process and the implementation of the plan. Those who are charged with representation are people from among the followers who serve to represent and act on behalf of the people. Both kinds of leaders must be people submitted to God, and both are necessary for the work, therefore both need to be included in the teams you assemble
- Purpose: the idea of purpose is related to the two questions of “Where are we going?” and “Why are we going there?” Answering the question of “where” happens when people can see the big picture, the overall goal. Ezra 7:27 does this, when we see how Ezra pointed out that the big-picture purpose for the task and for the people was “to beautify the house of the Lord which is in Jerusalem.” He clearly identified for the people their destination, before beginning to move forward with their plan. Answering the question of “why” happens when people understand motive, and it has to be a motive that resonates with them. Ezra did this in 8:28, when he reminded his team that both the task they were undertaking, as well as the people who were doing it (meaning, they themselves) were consecrated and holy to God. This shows us that in any task, the motive must be clearly established and communicated.
- Direction: once the purpose has been established, direction can be given, both near (in the short-term) and far (in the long-term). Ezra 8:21 illustrates this, when we are shown how Ezra took the time to humble himself before God, “to seek from Him the right way for us and for our little ones and all our possessions.” Determining the right way to go (direction) naturally follows determining purpose, because once you know where you are going and why you are going there, you can then identify the path you need to take to get there. Like mapping out a road trip, this includes determining the next step or stop, and then the one after that, and so on, as well as determining the overall route. And, as has been true for everything else, it must begin by first seeking direction from God.
- Process: the process is the flow, the way in which everything takes place and connects together. Ezra 7 and 8 show us that there would be a process of returning to Jerusalem, and Ezra 10 shows us that there would be a process of repentance and restoration. Understand, though, that the process of implementing a plan takes time and also brings many challenges, but also understand that there are important factors that – if communicated at the front of the process – will in turn help the process to flow well. The process of restoration described in Ezra 10:11-14 reveals these factors: boundaries, including both limits and freedoms; methods, or, how the process will happen; and timing, including a schedule, checkpoints, and completion. Establishing these factors early will serve to greatly enhance the smoothness of the process.
- Procedure: a procedure provides the necessary guidelines for implementing a plan, and – one last time – it begins by first seeking God. The steps that take place in Ezra 8 (the return to Jerusalem) and Ezra 10 (the repentance and restoration) reveal that the first procedural step is to meet, gathering the necessary people together to clearly communicate and initiate the plan. The last step is to celebrate (giving credit to God), and in between the first and last steps are incremental goals, or benchmarks, that need to be achieved (and should also be celebrated). Along the way, it is necessary to periodically assess progress and communicate.
At its core, the work of leadership centers around and involves both people and tasks, and it is hard work that requires an intentional plan which includes recognition, voice, resources, leaders, purpose, direction, process, and procedures. It is, however, also incredibly fulfilling to be an instrument in God’s plan in that work. As His instrument, our desire and effort should be to do this work with excellence, and understanding these eight components will help us to do so. And when you reach the destination, don’t forget to celebrate, and don’t forget to give credit to God.